Economics Essay Samples

[...] Economists have two interests in the definition of the budget. One is to measure the impact of the budget on the demand for output. This is also known as the deficit on income and product account. It is also the deficit that fits into the proposition that private savings equal private investment plus the deficit. A second one of the budget deficit in economic analysis is to measure the effect of the government on total investment. If interest is only in private investment, the income and product account deficit serves the purchase. But if the interest is in total investment, including the investment government makes, as in buildings, the deficit should exclude the government's investment expenditures. Nowadays surplus in the social security accounts became much larger than it had previously been, and government outlays for the costs of deposit insurance also became very large. [...]

[...] Presidents, cabinet members, congressmen, senators, TV pundits, editorial writers, leaders of business and labor, and taxpayers talk about the American economy. That is natural and good. Much of our lives center on the economy. A great deal of this talk, though, proceeds in ignorance of basic facts about the American economy or, what is worse, makes assumptions about it that are not so, or at least are highly doubtful. By "basic" facts I mean those that refer to the condition of the country as a whole that affect and interest large number of people, and that throw some light on the subjects of most widespread concern. [...]

[...] Improving product environmental impact at all life cycles is an important topic for manufacturers of Hi-Tech products. The end-of-life is one stage of the life cycle stages gaining attention in the public realm and in the market. Companies must understand how to improve their products so that the environmental impact will be lower at the end-of-life while also minimizing costs. Environmental value chain analysis is based on the concepts of customer value chain analysis and supply chain management. Customer value chain analysis seeks to identify pertinent customer and other stakeholders' interests, their value perceptions and the relationship between these parties in green product or process development projects. Environmental Value Chain Analysis (EVCA) shows the value relationships between groups implementing environmental improvement programs. [...]

[...] For the centuries countries have tried to defend their companies and labor force from foreign competitors by imposing high taxes on imports. For the last thirty years this has changed a lot. It happened due to a number of reasons: technology, peace among the countries, and other various changes that happened in the world trough time. Nowadays, more and more firms are coming to global market system, and governments in the same tome are constantly encouraging world trade. The agreements that lowered trade barriers were Trade and the North American Free Trade Agreement and General Agreement on Tariffs. A lot of companies could enter the global economy and generate greater earnings. Firms were also pulled out of business due to the intensification of competition. The global economy growth also resulted in specialization aimed to lower costs of production. [...]

[...] From the beginning of the 20th century, oil was the corner stone of the economy of the United States. Oil history begins with Standard Oil that was formed in 1870 in the U.S. and became the first with sales in the billions of dollars headed by the first American billionaire John D. Rockefeller. By 1900, 90% of all the refined oil in the U.S was controlled by this company, already the giant monopoly that used illegal commercial methods. Only in 1911, two dozen independent businesses were created with the breakage of the monopoly. Eventually, the Standard Oil became as large as a business that it was able to brood several independent giants. Today they are well known Chevron, Mobil, Amoco, Exxon and Texaco. [...]

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